June 30, 2015 – The Caribbean region has the second highest incidence of HIV after sub-Saharan African but has made steady progress over the past decade in reducing new infections and on Tuesday Cuba achieved a feat that has so far evaded the rest of the world.
The World Health Organization announced that the island nation has become the first country to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV. The most recent figures from WHO show that 240,000 children globally were born with HIV in 2013, down from 400,000 in 2009.
“Eliminating transmission of the virus is one of the greatest public health achievements possible,” WHO Executive-Director Margaret Chan said in a statement. “This is a celebration for Cuba and a celebration for children and families everywhere.”
An estimated 1.4 million women living with HIV become pregnant annually and, unless treated with anti-retrovirals, have a 15-45 percent chance of transmitting the virus during pregnancy, labor or through breastfeeding. If both mother and child receive antiretroviral treatment during these crucial stages then the risk of transmission is lowered to about 1 percent, according to WHO.
The Caribbean nation has also eliminated mother-to-child transmission of syphilis. Some 1 million pregnant women are infected with the disease annually and it results in early miscarriage and stillbirth, newborn death, low-birth-weight and other serious infection in newborns.
The WHO guidelines for validating elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and syphilis notes that as treatment is not 100 percent effective, elimination is defined as a reduction to such a low-level that it no longer constitutes a public health concern. Among the indicators are new HIV infections among infants are less than 50 cases per 100,000 live births or less than 5 percent for women living with HIV who are breastfeeding. These targets must be met for two consecutive years.
In 2013, only two babies in Cuba were born with HIV and only five with syphilis.
- Denis Fitzgerald
On Twitter @denisfitz