Were the MDGs Successful?

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September 23, 2015 – The Millennium Development Goals expire at the end of this year and will be replaced by the Sustainable Development Goals that will be adopted by UN member states on Friday.

But as advocates have pointed out, particularly those from the least developed countries, the MDG agenda is still unfinished business and will be incorporated into the new, and expanded, global goals that will run until 2030.

Here we take stock of what has been achieved since 2000 when the eight Millennium Development Goals were adopted, and the gaps that remain.

Goal 1 – Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

The number of people living in extreme poverty has fallen from 1.75 billion in 1999 to 836 million in 2015 but about 800 million people still live in extreme poverty and suffer from hunger. Over 160 million children under the age of five have inadequate height for their age due to malnutrition.

Goal 2 – Achieve universal primary education

The number of out-of-school children of primary school age worldwide fell by almost half, to an estimated 57 million in 2015, down from 100 million in 2000. Primary school net enrollment rate in the developing regions has reached 91 percent in 2015 from 83 percent in 2000. Further efforts needed to achieve universal primary education.

Goal 3 – Promote gender equality and empower women

The average proportion of women in parliament has increased from 14 percent to 22 percent since 2000, but remains low in absolute terms. Globally, about three-quarters of working-age men participate in the labor force, compared to only half of working-age women. Women earn 24 percent less than men globally.

Goal 4 – Reduce child mortality

The global under-five mortality rate has declined by more than half, dropping from 90 to 43 deaths per 1,000 live births between 1990 and 2015. More work is needed to improve child survival rates. Every minute around the world, 11 children die before their fifth birthday, mostly from preventable causes.

Goal 5 – Improve maternal health

The global maternal mortality ratio has fallen from 330 to 210 deaths per 100,000 live births between 2000 and 2013. Only half of pregnant women receive the recommended amount of antenatal care.

Goal 6 – Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases

New HIV infections fell by 40 percent between 2000 and 2013, from an estimated 3.5 million cases to 2.1 million. In sub-Saharan Africa, still less than 40 percent of youth aged 15 to 24 years had correct knowledge of HIV transmission in 2014. Over 6.2 million malaria deaths have been averted between 2000 and 2015

Goal 7 – Ensure environmental sustainability

Between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of the global population using an improved sanitation facility has risen from 54 percent to 68 percent, and those using an improved drinking water source increased from 76 percent to 91 percent. Globally, 147 countries have met the MDG drinking water target, 95 countries have met the MDG sanitation target and 77 countries have met both. Emissions of carbon dioxide rose from 23.8 to 33.0 billion metric tons from 2000 to 2012.

Goal 8 –  Develop a global partnership for development

Official development assistance from developed countries rose 66 percent in real terms between 2000 and 2014, to USD 135.2bn. Funding will remain a critical factor for the post-2015 development agenda.

Related Story: Understanding the Sustainable Development Goals – Five Key Questions

Is it Time for ICC to Open Nigeria Investigation?

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Jan 12, 2015  – Nigeria’s President Goodluck Jonathan is again under scrutiny for his handling of the Boko Haram insurgency after the group’s attack in Baga last week which Amnesty International says killed up to 2,000 people but which the Nigerian government estimates killed some 150.

The Baga assault was followed by an attack in Kano this weekend that killed 23 and reportedly involved strapping a bomb to a 10-year-old girl.

The latest atrocities will lead to more calls for the ICC to open an investigation into the situation in Nigeria, citing the Nigerian government’s apparent unwillingness or inability to carry out genuine investigations or prosecutions into Boko Haram. The Islamist group has killed an estimated 9,000 civilians in the past five years, with attacks becoming more frequent and deadly, in addition to attacks on schools and the kidnapping of hundreds of schoolgirls.

ICC Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda reported in December that her office’s preliminary examination of the situation in Nigeria is currently at Phase 3, the stage where the prosecutor is determining whether the Nigerian government’s proceedings “are substantially the same as those that would likely arise from an investigation” by her office and whether “those most responsible for the most serious crimes are being brought to justice.”

“Information gaps remain with respect to national proceedings, in particular regarding the high discrepancy between the reported number of arrests of persons associated with Boko Haram and information on relevant legal proceedings,” Bensouda’s December report said. “The Office will request further information on and continue to analyze the relevance and genuineness of national proceedings by the competent national authorities.”

Critics of Jonathan say he is deliberately turning a blind-eye to Boko Haram’s assaults in the northern part of the country ahead of the February 1 presidential election. The claim is that by disenfranchising millions of voters in the pre-dominantly Muslim northern part of the country, he is assuring himself of victory over his presidential rival General Muhammadu Buhari.

Nigeria ratified the Rome Statute in Sept. 2001. The Court has determined that the situation in the north constitutes a non-international armed conflict and that there is a reasonable basis to believe that Boko Haram has committed crimes against humanity including murder and persecution and that the attacks on educational institutions and the kidnapping of schoolgirls could constitute crimes under the Court’s jurisdiction.

There are credible fears that next month’s election could lead to further violence. In addition, the activities of Boko Haram are now spilling over into neighboring countries, including Chad, where some 7,300 Nigerians have fled in recent days. Chad has troops serving with a Multinational Task Force (MNJTF), consisting of soldiers from Nigeria, Niger and Cameroon, in addition to Chad. The MJNTF is supposed to provide a bulwark against Boko Haram but that has not materialised and soldiers abandoned their base in Baja during last week’s deadly assault.

ICC Prosecutor Bensouda is not likely to rush her decision but much will depend on the outcome of the Feb. 14 election in Africa’s most populous nation. Jonathan is expected to win handily but it is his commitment to investigating and prosecuting Boko Haram leaders following his expected re-election that will be closely monitored by the ICC prosecutor ahead of her next report.

– Denis Fitzgerald
On Twitter @denisfitz

Peshawar Attack is Deadliest Assault Yet on Children’s Education in Pakistan

Schoolgirls in Abbotabad, Pakistan, 2013 (wikimedia)

Schoolgirls in Abbotabad, Pakistan, 2013 (wikimedia)

Dec. 16, 2014 – Less than one week after Pakistani schoolgirl Malala Yousefzai collected the Noble Peace Prize for her championing of children’s education, a cause for which she was shot in the head by the Taliban as a 14-year-old two years ago in the Swat Valley, the fundamentalist group has carried out its deadliest attack so far on a school in the country.

Tuesday’s assault by the Pakistan Taliban on a military-run school in Peshawar, which killed scores of children as well as teachers, is the latest in a growing list of attacks in which Taliban militants have attacked childhood education, with girls schools and female university students frequently the target.

Two schools for girls in Pakistan were blown up in November and October this year, one of which had recently been reconstructed following a previous attack.

According the UN envoy for children and armed conflict, 78 schools in Pakistan were attacked in 2013. A separate report, from the Global Coalition to Protect Education from Attack, reports there were 838 attacks on schools in Pakistan from 2009-2012, more than in any other country, as well as attacks on school buses, such as the one targeting Malala, which also resulted in two of her schoolmates being shot.

Research from Save the Children, a non-governmental organization, suggests that children entering primary school in countries affected by conflict are 20 percent more likely to leave primary school before completion than children in countries not affected by conflict.

In addition to Pakistan, neighboring Afghanistan, where some 550 children have been killed in the past year, according to reports by Ban Ki-moon, and Nigeria, where the terrorist group Boko Haram kidnapped more than 200 schoolgirls in March this year, are two of the other worst countries for attacks on children’s education.

Intentionally directing attacks against buildings dedicated to education is a war crime, according to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court.

– Denis Fitzgerald
On Twitter @denisfitz

Syria: The War on Development

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Oct. 31, 2013 – Syria’s economy has lost more than $103 billion since March 2011 while 2.3 million jobs have been lost and almost half the country’s school-age children are no longer in formal education.

The country’s conflict, which started after government forces used lethal force on peaceful protesters, has claimed the lives of more than 100,000 people while an estimated 400,000 more people have been maimed or injured. That’s 2 percent of the population that have been killed, injured or maimed.

These are among the dire statistics in a joint report issued by UNDP and UNRWA this week on the devastating impact of the conflict on Syria’s socio-economic development.

Some 3,000 schools are out of service as a result of damage or destruction while others are housing internally displaced people.

The effect on medical services is particularly acute with the ratio of doctors to serve the population falling from one for every 660 people to one for every 4,400 people.

The World Health Organization earlier this week reported that cases of polio have been confirmed, the first such outbreak since 1999 and that vaccination rates have plummeted from 91 percent in 2010 to 68 percent in 2012.

Some 8 million Syrians have fallen into poverty since the crisis began with more than half of those living in extreme poverty.

“As the formal economy has imploded there has been a growth in informality, rent-seeking 
activities, criminal enterprise and economies of violence that will plague post-conflict economic regulation, reform, equity and development,” the UNDP-UNRWA report says.

The full report is here

– Denis Fitzgerald
On Twitter @denisfitz

Photo/Wikimedia